The consequences of domestication on the nutritional requirements of animal species
The domestication of animal species has a direct impact on the nutritional requirements that they have. We will divide it into four categories for this case study and also mention the impact compared to the wild counterparts.
Wild: These populations experience their full life cycles without deliberate human intervention. They are able to forage or hunt for their full nutritional needs as and when required.
The following categories are restricted from following their natural habitual feeding instincts and requirements in that they are dependent on humans for their nutrition.
- Raised in Captivity
- Captured from Wild
- Raised commercially
Raised in Captivity/Captured from Wild (in zoos, botanical gardens or for human gain): These populations are nurtured by humans but (except in zoos) not normally bred under human control. They remain as a group essentially indistinguishable in appearance or behaviour from their wild counterparts. Examples include Asian elephants, animals such as sloth bears and cobras used by showmen in India, and animals such as Asian black bears (farmed for their bile), and zoo animals, kept in captivity as examples of their species. (It should be noted that zoos and botanical gardens sometimes exhibit domesticated or feral animals and plants such as camels, mustangs, and some orchids
Raised commercially (captive or semi domesticated): These populations are ranched or farmed in large numbers for food, commodities, or the pet trade, commonly breed in captivity, but as a group are not substantially altered in appearance or behaviour from their wild cousins. Examples include the ostrich, various deer, alligator, cricket, pearl oyster, raptors used in falconry and ball python. (These species are sometimes referred to as partially domesticated.)
Domesticated: These populations are bred and raised under human control for many generations and are substantially altered as a group in appearance or behaviour. Examples include sweet potato, garlic, pigs, ferrets, turkeys, canaries, domestic pigeons, goldfish, koi carp, silkworms, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, chickens, llamas, guinea pigs, laboratory mice, horses, goats and (silver) foxes.
As a result animals often suffer with the following:
- Over weight
- Food intolerance and allergies due to additives in their food
- Bad breath
- Bad teeth
- Skin allergies and related illnesses